October 25, 2012 Dr. Eva Sapi was finally able to publish a ground-breaking paper on the role of biofilms in chronic Lyme.
This vital work was rigorously reviewed by peers before publication which can be an exhausting process but one that yields the required credibility for skeptics (especially the non-believing mainstream medical community).
Touched on in the film sensation “Under Our Skin”, the role of biofilms in the growth and protection of Borrelia burgdorferi explains so much about the existence of chronic Lyme disease and the reason why people feel so much better on antibiotics only to relapse after the drugs are stopped.
“Characterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In Vitro” was published in conjuntion with Scott L. Bastian, Cedric M. Mpoy, Shernea Scott, Amy Rattelle, Namrata Pabbati, Akhila Poruri,Divya Burugu, Priyanka A. S. Theophilus, Truc V. Pham, Akshita Datar, Navroop K. Dhaliwal, Alan MacDonald, Michael J. Rossi, Saion K. Sinha, David F. Luecke; all from the University of New Haven and/or West Haven – cumulatively known as the CT University’s Lyme Research Group.
In the Introduction, Dr. Sapi writes,
“Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is known to employ a variety of mechanisms to counteract eradication by its host, including the adoption of several alternate morphologies in response to changing environmental conditions.
In addition to its familiar corkscrew-shaped spirochete form, Borrelia burgdorferi can transform from motile spirochetes into cystic, granular, or cell wall deficient forms in the presence of various unfavorable environmental conditions.
For example, cystic forms can be induced by unfavorable conditions such as nutrition deprivation, high ambient pH, or adverse temperature.
It has also been demonstrated that cystic forms are able to revert to vegetative spirochetes in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that these alternative formations are one of the ways that Borrelia burgdorferi survives in otherwise unfavorable conditions.
Besides the cystic form, agglomeration of spirochetes into organized aggregates, containing numerous cystic forms, granules as well as spirochetes, has been also observed both in vitro and in vivo.”
There are remarkable photos in the paper using a sophisticated microscope that allows constant imaging in order to follow the growth of the biofilms under many different conditions and searching for unique composition, of special note is one photo that shows a biofilm full of live spirochetes that continues to grow and live with half of it’s substance exposed to air.
Although there are not any remarks to accompany that remarkable instance, the impact it could have on the premise of many alternative Lyme treatments – most notably Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments (HBOT).
For those of you committed to HBOT, it seems reasonable to consider combining a biofilm “busting” protocol such as Serrapeptase, Nattokinase and/or Lumbrokinase (BULOKE) to your protocol to unlock these super-organized protective colonies to effectively kill all bacteria
The abstract is as follows:
“Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen.
In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques.
The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic substrates, and is also capable of forming floating aggregates.
Analyzing the extra-cellular substance of the aggregates for potential exopolysaccharides revealed the existence of both sulfated and non-sulfated/carboxylated substrates, predominately composed of an alginate with calcium and extracellular DNA present. In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro.
Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by providing refuge to individual cells.”
If you haven’t read Dr. Sapi’s article in Townsend Letter on how to effectively treat Bb, co-infections and the biofilms they hide in, be sure to read it now at http://www.townsendletter.com/July2010/sapi0710.html.
Also watch this short video on her work towards curing Lyme disease. http://youtu.be/AmvgOfIN_8c