I recently received a comment from a reader who correctly (and kindly) scolded me for the lack of sources listed in my posts.
I hope my readers know that my personal standard for integrity would not allow for spreading unfounded rumors,
but she is right I should state every source. The comment and answer is listed below for those of you who may also want to know more:
You say “it has been recently discovered that ticks become infected by their mother. ” where is your source for this claim? I have not been able to find any study or article that substantiates this. Every source I’ve read say the larva are not infected until their blood meal, starting with the study in 1989, Failure of Ixodes Ticks To Inherit Borrelia afzelii Infection, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC106822/
Also please provide citations for your other claims, such as, “four out of twenty species studied from Shelter Island that can leave the skin and infect the rest of the body.” Without legitimate sources, your claims simply breed more fear and confusion, and then doctors reject all views but the narrow ISDA view.
Thank you for your comment, and I apologize for not listing my sources in every post – I will endeavor to do so faithfully in the future as I agree that misinformation can cause misplaced fear, but in most cases many old publications have been proven wrong with new evidence.
In 2012 tick larvae were found infected with B. burgdorferi before a blood meal published here:
Rollend, L., Fish, D., & Childs, J. (2012, June 19). Transovarial transmission of Borrelia spirochetes by Ixodes scapularis: A summary of the literature and recent observations. Retrieved December 1, 2014, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000672
and in 2013 it was reported that ticks infected with B. miyamotoi before a blood meal were discovered. Source:
Krause, D. (2013, January 17). Human Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in the United States — NEJM. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1215469
I first read about the “four out of twenty species…” in Cure Unknown. SOURCE:
Gerald Seinost, Daniel E. Dykhuizen, Raymond J. Dattwyler,*, William T. Golde, John J. Dunn, Ing-Nang Wang, Gary P. Wormser, Martin E. Schriefer and Benjamin J. Luft (1999, July ). Four Clones of Borrelia burgdorferiSensu Stricto Cause Invasive Infection in Humans. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://iai.asm.org/content/67/7/3518.short
I hope this helps.